About Chronic Kidney Disease | National Kidney Foundation | Papolar

Chronic Kidney Disease

Definition of kidneys

Kidneys are two bean-shaped organs which are positioned sideways to the spine within the lower back part of the body. In most cases, people have two fist size kidneys when they are born.

What’s the meaning of CKD (chronic kidney disease)?

CKD is a disease condition where the kidneys are damaged and thus an individual health is affected since the ability of the kidney to carry out their functions is not enhanced. When the CKD gets to worse levels one feels quite weak because high levels of wastes accumulate in the blood. Furthermore, other body complications including damaged nerves, the high pressure of the blood, weak bones as well as nutrition health being poor and low blood count (anemia) can also develop.

In the same manner, CKD increases the chances of an individual having blood vessels and heart disease. These challenges slowly develop and are manifested after a long period of time. However, if the diseases conditions are detected early and get treated, then CKD can be regulated and further complications are prevented. On the contrary, if the disease symptoms are not noticed, then further complications take place as the disease progress to chronic levels. In this case, kidney failure may occur and this would require the affected individual to have a kidney transplant or dialysis so as to continue living a much comfortable life.

The functioning of the kidney is not stopped at once in most cases because CKD is a health problem which is long-term. For some individuals, the functioning of the kidney can be stopped at once and this results into renal diseases that are at end-stage (ESRD) or even kidney failure. When this takes place, an individual’s requires to have a kidney transplant or dialysis to be able to maintain their life.

What are the possible causes of CKD?

Evidently, both high blood pressure and diabetes are the two main causes CKD. The two conditions are responsible for two-thirds of the CKD diseases which are reported. Hypertension or high blood pressure takes place when the blood pressure against the vessel walls increases. On the other hand, diabetes occurs when the level of sugar in the blood becomes too high such that it results in damaging of the body organs including nerves, heart, kidney, eyes and blood vessels. If these conditions are not properly controlled or they are not controlled at all, chronic kidney disease and heart attack can occur as a result of the blood pressure being high

Similarly, Chronic Kidney Disease can trigger high blood pressure which is as follows. First, inheritable diseases like a polycystic disease of the kidney that causes the formation of large cysts in the kidney as well as the surrounding tissues being damaged. Secondly, there are urinary infections which are often repeated. Thirdly, glomerulonephritis which is a disease that damages the filtering units of the kidney and causes inflammation can also affect the kidney. In fact, this disease is categorized as the third most common among the kidney diseases. Fourth, other diseases that affect the immune system of the body especially Lupus can affect the kidney. Fifth, developing babies malformations which can take when they are in the womb can affect the functioning of the kidney. For instance, narrowing can occur and this hinders normal urine outflow and can also lead to urine flowing back toward the kidney. Finally, some conditions like kidney stones, prostate glands that are enlarged in men or tumors can cause an obstruction which affects the kidney.

What are the developmental stages of CKD?

The developmental stages of CKD take place in five stages. In every stage, the functioning of the kidney can be accessed to determine how the kidneys are functioning. Actually, health professionals determine the functioning of the kidney after they evaluate the rate of glomerular filtration (GFR).

What are the CKD symptoms?

When affected by CKD most individuals tend to present the following symptoms low concentration, loss of appetite, fatigue, cramping of muscles at night, itchy and skin, desire to urinate, swollen ankles and feet and sleeping problems.

Nevertheless, some individuals are at more risk of developing CKD compare to others due to the following factors. Those who have; a history of kidney failure, high blood pressure, old age, and diabetes are at a higher risk of having CKD. Moreover, some population groups including Indian Americans, Hispanic Americans, African Americans and Pacific Islanders have a higher risk of developing diabetes and high blood pressure thereby making them more susceptible to CKD compared to other populations.

  Reasons that make Asian Americans be more susceptible to kidney diseases?

Arguably, Asian Americans are more susceptible to diseases of the kidney. To begin with, this group as demonstrated by the Health and Human Services of the U.S department have high chances of having diabetes compared to other groups. Furthermore, the diet which the group eats increases their chances of having diabetes and this increases the chances of having diabetes. Nevertheless, the genetic composition of these individuals favors the development of kidney diseases. In the same manner, the group is associated with a sedentary life whereby they do not exercise and this increases their chances of having kidney diseases.


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